In Pharmaceutics, the term pharmaceutical formulation refers to the final medicinal product which is a result of combining the active drug along with different chemical substances. The formulation is obtained after in-depth studies so that the patient can take the drug in an acceptable and stable form.
- Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the drug
- Polymorphism, solubility, pH, particle size
- Inactive additives to be included
- Effectiveness in phase I clinical trials
- Conducting stability studies
Effects of Containers
After the drug has been formulated, the effect of storage for extended periods in closed containers is observed and checked. This is necessary to ascertain whether there is any unwelcome reaction between the container and the formulation. The drug can be in a liquid form or a solid or gas which can be stored in containers made of plastic, glass and metal.
Types of Formulations
The drug formulations depend on the mode of administration. Accordingly they are classified as follows:
Enteral formulations: These take the form of capsules or tablets. In a capsule the active substance is enclosed by a gelatinous covering. It can delay absorption for required hours after ingestion or provide for a sustained and rapid absorption in the same dose. A tablet on the other hand can provide either a rapid effect or a sustained release.
Parenteral Formulations: These take two forms, the liquid or the lyophilized form if they are unstable. These are used for intravenous, intra-articular, intramuscular, subcutaneous administration. The liquid form is preserved in ampoules, IV bags, vials and prefilled syringes while the lyophilized form of drug is stored in dual chamber syringes, cartridges, vials and prefilled mixing systems.
Topical Formulations: These are either in cutaneous form or to be inhaled. Cutaneous form includes creams, ointments, gels, powders and pastes.
Various manufacturers of pharmaceutical formulations India are listed in several online directories. Tradeindia is one such online directory which has a list of manufacturers and exporters of Indian and global drug formulations. It is essential that all Indian manufacturers adopt GMP to ensure the quality of their formulations. Only if their quality is in line with internationally recognized GMP can their exports increase and enable the country to earn foreign revenues.